CASTLE stands for Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity.
It is a conceptual curriculum available for download from Pasco Scientific (go to https://www.pasco.com/prodCompare/castle-kit/index.cfm and scroll down to find the downloads). The curriculum is a basically complete set of activities, demonstrations, student classwork, homework, and quizzes.
A teacher guide is available by contacting me (or Pasco Scientific).
It takes a lot of time for students to complete the whole curriculum, but there are benefits. The curriculum is student-guided and inquiry-based, and emphasizes deep conceptual understanding (there are virtually no calculations and equations). Because of time constraints, my students, even my students in “on-level” physics where there is less time pressure, don’t do all of the activities. I am presenting some of the useful ideas here, so that you can see the benefit of the curriculum and perhaps make use of some of the ideas even though you don’t use the whole thing (which would be ideal, but won’t work for everyone).
Any of these activities that use a capacitor and bulbs to visualize what is happening in a circuit will not work with ordinary capacitors. As far as I know, Pasco.com is the only source for the capacitors that are utilized in the CASTLE curriculum. But, many of the activities below do not require the CASTLE capacitors.
1.2 Activity: “Using the compass to investigate a closed loop.”
A compass is placed under one of the wires in a circuit.
- The deflection of the needle indicates something is happening in wires.
- Reversing the battery reverses the deflection – whatever is happening has a direction.
- Moving the compass to different parts of the circuit shows the same deflection – indicates that whatever is happening in the wires happens everywhere. Charge is everywhere in the circuit. The battery provides energy that makes charge move/causes charge to do work, but is not the source of charge (See also Activity 8.1).
1.11 Activity: “Lighting a bulb with a single cell”
Students are given a miniature bulb, a D cell and a single wire. They are challenged to light the bulb using only those materials. Students are given a “dissected” light bulb to examine.
- An incandescent bulb must provide a single conducting path for charge to move through the bulb, including the filament
- Charge must enter and leave through conducting parts of the bulb
- Insulating parts of the bulb separate the conducting parts to provide the single path
2.3 Activity “Additional Symbols for Circuit Diagrams”
Try drawing “starbursts” to represent bulb brightness:
And drawing “Arrowtails” to represent current magnitude and directions:
2.6 Activity “Examining filaments under magnification” and 2.8 “Comparing the resistance of a bulb to a wire”
This is done after students observe that adding resistors or bulbs in series to a circuit decreases the brightness of a bulb. They examine the filaments of incandescent bulbs using magnifying lenses. The filament wires are much thinner than the support wires and connecting wires (alligator clip leads). Adding a long wire to a circuit does not appreciably change the brightness. Connecting a wire in parallel with a bulb causes the bulb to go out, as nearly all of the flow stays in the wire. Students deduce that most of the resistance is in the bulb.
- Most of the resistance is in the bulb
- The filament of the bulb is much thinner than other parts of the circuit
- Thinness appears to equate with increased resistance
- In a series circuit, a long bulb is brighter than a long bulb – since current is the same in the series circuit, the brightness of the bulb must depend on the resistance of each bulb. The filament of the round bulb must have less resistance than the filament of the long/the filament of the round bulb is thicker than the filament of the long bulb a thin filament has high resistance (see pictures below)
2.7 Activity “Detecting the resistance of straws to air flow”
In this activity different sized straws are used as an analogy for conductors in a circuit. Air is a compressible fluid that serves as the analogy for electric charge in the circuit. Coffee stirrer straws, ordinary drinking straws, bubble-tea straws, and paper towel tubes are all useful for this activity. Students blow through the straws and observe that resistance to airflow decreases with diameter. Putting like straws together with tape illustrates the series and parallel relationship with resistance.
- Resistance to flow decreases with increased diameter
- Resistance to flow increases with increased length
- Resistance to flow decreases when “resistors” are arranged in parallel, increases when they are arranged in series.
2.8 Activity “Comparing the Resistance of Wire with a Filament”
Students insert a long wire into their circuit and observe that the compass needle deflects the same as before. Then they insert a second bulb in series into their circuit, and observe less deflection. This leads to the conclusion that wire has negligible resistance and bulbs have significant resistance.
4.2 Activity “Exploring air as an analogy”
Two linked hypodermic syringes (minus needles) show how pressure equalizes in a circuit. Potential difference (voltage) in a circuit acts like pressure differences in the syringes.
- When circuit elements are connected to a source of electric pressure (a battery, for instance), the pressure quickly equalizes
- Although the elements may be different, the pressure equalizes if it can.
4.7 Activity: How below-normal air pressure behaves (Air Capacitor)
In this activity, students work with an air capacitor (shown above in schematic and below in a photograph).
Blowing air in or out causes the balloon membrane to move, displacing air and/or changing the pressure within the capacitor. This is analogous to the flow of charge into and out of a capacitor. Air/Charge is already present in the capacitor, and is displaced from one side or the other, rather than moving through the capacitor. The balloon membrane acts like a dielectric, insulating one side from the other.
4.9 Commentary “Color Coding for Electric Pressures in a Circuit”
In this section, students use colored pencils to represent levels of electric potential in a circuit by color-coding schematics of the circuit. Once students understand what is expected, it is very quick to determine which bulbs in a circuit will be the brightest, or identify any bulbs that will not light (because both ends are at the same “electric pressure”). Try color-coding this circuit:
See below for a CASTLE-style representation of an RC circuit charging.
8.1 Activity “Circuit with a Conducting Island”
Build the circuit, predict what will happen, and connect it. The bulbs light and then go out. Charge that lights the bulbs must not have come from the battery, since the capacitor has insulators that don’t let charge through. Charge everywhere in the circuit moves until the electric pressures are all equalized. Energy is stored in the capacitors when they charge, but not a net charge.
There are twelve sections in CASTLE. The later sections delve into advanced topics, such as electric fields, semiconductors, magnetism and induction, and electromagnetic signal propagation and detection. All without making significant use of mathematics and equations. There are great teaching ideas in those sections, I just chose to highlight some sections that may be more broadly applicable.
You can download the curriculum from Pasco.com. Or leave me a message below /send me an email and I can share the entire curriculum, including a few things that are not available on the Pasco website.
Pasco Scientific is a convenient source of good-quality materials for the CASTLE kit used by students in the curriculum. You may be able to find everything in the kit cheaper elsewhere, but the capacitors. I have never seen those specific capacitors (High Capacitance, relatively high Voltage, and non-polar) anywhere else.